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字画收购需要辨别什么样的要素?

来源:http://www.jinandayatang.com 发布时间:2022-02-10

纸、帛的鉴别字画是作于纸和帛之上的,帛的寿命一般百年左右,纸的寿命约在千年之内。当然,出土文物中的纸帛由于地下埋葬环境的不同,仍可能超越千年。例如绢帛在晋唐之前是单丝织成,直到宋代才发现双丝织成的绢帛,比元明时期的绢显得细密。由绢的质量类别可以断定字画年代。
The identification of paper and silk, calligraphy and painting are made on paper and silk. The service life of silk is generally about 100 years, and the service life of paper is about 1000 years. Of course, due to the different underground burial environment, the paper and silk in the unearthed cultural relics may still exceed a thousand years. For example, silk was woven from single silk before the Jin and Tang Dynasties. It was not until the Song Dynasty that it was found that the silk woven from double silk was finer than that in the yuan and Ming Dynasties. The age of calligraphy and painting can be determined by the quality category of silk.
纸,也有时代痕迹。隋唐之前,纸以麻料作原料,显得纤维较租,纸张不够细洁;隋唐之后,树皮被用来造纸,其纸质比以前精细;北宋中期后,造纸原料多样化,纸质也呈现多样化了。实际上,民间收藏的字画仅以明清以后时期多见,这是因为纸、绢本身难于历经数百年保存的缘故。再加上造伪者的混淆,所以有人认为古字画中相当部分是鱼目混珠
Paper also has traces of the times. Before the Sui and Tang Dynasties, paper used hemp as raw material, which showed that the fiber was rented and the paper was not clean enough; After the Sui and Tang Dynasties, bark was used to make paper, which was finer than before; After the mid Northern Song Dynasty, the paper-making raw materials were diversified, and the paper also showed diversification. In fact, folk collections of calligraphy and paintings are only common after the Ming and Qing Dynasties, because paper and silk itself are difficult to preserve for hundreds of years. Coupled with the confusion of counterfeiters, some people think that a considerable part of ancient calligraphy and painting is fishy eyes mixed with pearls
济南收购字画
一、装演鉴别:
1、 Costume identification:
各个时代装横有其特色。如元代宫廷藏画选择专人装裱,大德四年“以古玉象牙为轴,以鸾鹊木锦碧天续为装核”。明代书画则在书画卷增加了引首,有的还被写上了字,立轴有宽边、窄边之分,有的还加了诗堂。清代宫廷书画的装核用料和技术形式都胜于明代,显得更为讲究。
Each era has its own characteristics. For example, the palace paintings of the Yuan Dynasty were mounted by special personnel. In the fourth year of Dade, "the axis was ancient jade and ivory, and the core was Luan magpie, wood, brocade and green sky". In the Ming Dynasty, the introduction was added to the calligraphy and painting volume, and some were written with characters. The vertical axis was divided into wide and narrow sides, and some added poetry halls. The materials and technical forms of the court calligraphy and painting in the Qing Dynasty are better than those in the Ming Dynasty.
二、印章鉴别:
2、 Seal identification:
宋代字画作品许多不上印章,部分上盖铜印与玉印,印色有密印和水樱元代印章质料有木、象牙、铜、玉等,印色为油印和水樱元代自王冕始用石料印章。明代石料印章普遍,篆文刻法采用“锤头式”,使用大多是油樱清代印章形状、字体、字形均呈多样化,印色为油质。 画中人物衣服与生活用具的鉴别 各个年代冠服往往不同,生活用具也有差别,可以据以鉴别。
Many calligraphy and painting works in the Song Dynasty do not have seals. Some of them are covered with copper seals and jade seals. The printing colors include secret seals and Shuiying seals in the Yuan Dynasty. The materials include wood, ivory, copper and jade. The printing colors are oil seals and Shuiying seals. Stone seals have been used since Wang Mian in the Yuan Dynasty. Stone seals were common in the Ming Dynasty, and the seal cutting method adopted "hammer head type", most of which were oil cherry seals. The shapes, fonts and glyphs of seals in the Qing Dynasty were diversified, and the printing color was oil. The identification of the clothes and living utensils of the characters in the painting is often different in different ages, and the living utensils are also different, which can be used for identification.
三、题跋鉴别:
3、 Inscription and postscript identification:
题跋分三类:作者的题跋,同时代人的题跋,后人的题跋。题跋是为了增加字画的身价。但是,常见有真画配假题跋或假画配真题跋的,应仔细鉴别。特别是名家在假字画上题跋更容易使入迷。
There are three types of inscriptions and postscripts: the author's inscriptions and postscripts, the contemporaries' inscriptions and postscripts, and the posterity's inscriptions and postscripts. Inscriptions and postscripts are to increase the value of calligraphy and painting. However, if there are often true paintings with false inscriptions and postscripts or false paintings with true inscriptions and postscripts, they should be carefully identified. In particular, famous artists are more likely to be fascinated by inscriptions and postscripts on fake calligraphy and paintings.